[9], Jacques Schol, a Dutchman, was commander of the camp from July 16 1940 and until January 1943. provides background information on the daily life in the camp and its role in the German concentration-camp system. [8] The film features colorization of original video of transports from Westerbork by photographer Rudolf Breslauer. [3] Jewish inmates with families were housed in 200 interconnected cottages that contained two rooms, a toilet, a hot plate for cooking, and a small yard. [2] Allied troops neared Westerbork in early April, 1945 after German officials abandoned the camp. The camp of Westerbork was a very strange place. From then on, any refugees would not have any rights. The aim was to keep the people uninformed about the future perspective of them. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 When the Nazis invaded the Netherlands, they took control over Westerbork and turned it into a transit camp for … [3] Only one-half square kilometer (119 acres) in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. [1], Notable prisoners in Westerbork included Anne Frank, who was transported to Camp Westerbork on August 4, 1944[4] and Etty Hillesum, each of whom wrote of their experiences in diaries discovered after the war. This camp had been opened by the Dutch authorities during the summer 1939 in order to receive the Jewish refugees coming from Germany.The first refugees arrived in Westerbork on October 9, 1939. Sanitary conditions improved to a certain degree in 1943, when each part of the camp was outfitted with a bathhouse and equipment for disinfecting clothing and linen. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Information on the deportation of Hans Mossel via the Arolson online archives. Höcker took the pictures as personal keepsakes. In early April 1945, as Allied forces neared the camp, the German guards abandoned it. On July 14th, 1942, all the Jews were examined by the SS in order to determine who was able to work or not. Find the perfect westerbork concentration camp stock photo. The camp of Westerbork was situated about 15 km from the village of Westerbork. From July 1942 - September 3, 1944. nearly 200,000 Jews were deported from the camp. [2] As a tribute to those inmates who had died after deportation, a memorial was commissioned;[2] it consists of 102,000 stones, representing each person who was deported from Westerbork and never returned. [2] Cultural activities provided by the Nazis for designated deportees included metalwork, jobs in health services, and other cultural activities. Dampness, leaky roofs, and the fouling of straw and straw mattresses by prisoners suffering from diarrhea made difficult living conditions worse. [1] Jewish inmates were deported in waves to Auschwitz concentration camp (65 train-loads totaling 60,330 people), Sobibor (19 train-loads; 34,313 people), Theresienstadt ghetto, and Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (9 train-loads; 4,894 people). These areas were vital to the operation of the camp and he believes this is why he was not deported to the concentration camps in Poland as were nearly all the other inmates. Elie Cohen, a doctor, was in Westerbork for 8 months before being sent to Auschwitz. [12], A museum was created two miles from Westerbork to keep the memories of those imprisoned in the camp alive. Only the former camp commander’s house has been preserved, in a glass container.[2]. Another similarity between camp Westerbork and other concentration camps was the strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent by the prisoners. The Westerbork camp was situated in the northeastern part of the Netherlands in the Dutch province of Drenthe, near the towns of Westerbork and Assen. [5][6] Hillesum stayed at Westerbork until September 7, 1943, when she was deported to Auschwitz. In late July 1944, as Soviet forces approached Lublin, the remaining camp staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without fully dismantling the camp. The transfer of Jews from Amsterdam to Westerbork began on the night of 14/15 July 1942, and the first transport left for Auschwitz on the following day. Westerbork concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a World War II Nazi refugee, detention and transit camp in Hooghalen, ten kilometres north of Westerbork, in the northeastern Netherlands.Its function during the Second World War was to assemble Roma and Dutch Jews for transport to other Nazi concentration camps. Punishment and mistreatment of prisoners by security staff; 7. TTY: 202.488.0406. [3] Within the confines of the camp, German SS commanders were in charge of inmates, but squads of Jewish police and security were used to keep order and aid in transport, as noted above. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. This section will explore how the SS developed the notorious Nazi concentration camps from 1934 onwards, who they imprisoned, and how the inmates lived. Here the lives of one hundred thousand Dutch Jews, Sinti and Roma are remembered. Westerbork was liberated by Canadian forces on April 12, 1945. Single inmates were placed in oblong barracks which contained a bathroom for each sex. Unlike other transit camps, Westerbork maintained a semi-permanent population who remained in the camp for a considerable time, ran their own affairs and maintained a near-normal life, especially in the periods when there were no deportations. [1][2], Camp Westerbork was utilized as a staging ground for the deportation of Jews. Typescript report into conditions at Westerbork concentration camp entitled 'Kollektive Arbeit einer Widerstandsgruppe'; also correspondence between members of Wiener Library staff and Professor David Cohen regarding the reliability of the report as a historical document, including a short paper on the subject, 1944-1959. These are the first leisure time photos of the concentration camp’s SS officers to be discovered, though similar images do exist for other camps, including Sachsenhausen, Dachau and Buchenwald. However, from 1951 to 1971, former indigenous Moluccan KNIL soldiers and their families were made to stay in the camp. Another prisoner at Camp Westerbork from 9 March 1944 to 23 March 1944 was Hans Mossel (1905-1944), a Jewish-Dutch clarinetist and saxophonist, before he was sent to the Auschwitz III camp. The album belonged to Karl Höcker, the adjutant to the final camp commandant at Auschwitz, Richard Baer. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. Map of Camp Westerbork Camp Westerbork was utilized as a staging ground for the deportation of Jews. Camp Westerbork was home to some well know victims of the Nazi regime. Jona Oberski wrote of his experience as a small child at Westerbork in his book, Kinderjaren ("Childhood"), published in the Netherlands in 1978 and later made into the film, Jonah Who Lived in the Whale. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing [15], "Westerbork" redirects here. I first saw the documentary also called "Steal a Pencil for Me" and became very interested in reading all of the accounts that were told in the show again. View the list of all donors. Single inmates were placed in oblong barrackswhich contained a bathroom f… Westerbork was liberated on April 12, 1945, by Canadian forces who found 876 inmates there. Overall, the conditions in the transit camps were similar to that of concentration camps – unsanitary and awful. From July 1942 until September 3, 1944, the Germans deported 97,776 Jews from Westerbork: 54,930 to Auschwitz in 68 transports, 34,313 to Sobibor in 19 transports, 4,771 to the Theresienstadt ghetto in 7 transports, and 3,762 to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in 9 transports. Westerbork, the Netherlands, October 1942. Hedwig was arrested in 1936 for political opposition to the Nazis. those children who came without their parents), a hair-dresser, an orchestra and even a restaurant. Westerbork was considered by Nazi standards as “humane”. NLD The … Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} NLD The Netherlands Assen The concentration camp Westerbork was a transit camp of the Nazi system in Holland exterior view with barrack . The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. There was a school ( only for the "orphans", i.e. Although the Nazi occupation began in 1940, the treatment of Dutch Jews was deceptively generous and slow-paced, particularly in contrast with that of Jews in Eastern Europe, or in Germany itself. The second, smaller, concentration camp in Holland was Vught. Unlike most of the concentration camps within Germany not all of the transit camps were run by the SS. The antiques dealer listed the controversial item on eBay for €199. There was a school ( only for the "orphans", i.e. The barracks were frequently damp, and lice and rats were an enormous problem for the prisoners. [1], Camp Westerbork also had a school, orchestra, hairdresser, and even restaurants designed by SS officials to give inmates a false sense of hope for survival and to aid in avoiding problems during transportation. This isolated piece of real estate appeared to be the ideal place to build a camp for German Jewish refugees. She died there three months later.[6]. [1] Within this group was a sub-group constituting a camp police force which was required to assist with transports and keep order. Concentration camp Dachau. The camp continued to function after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. Only 5200 of these people survived the holocaust. People would be transported to the concentration camps by freight cars, cattle cars, or passenger trains. Westerbork Concentration Camp Westerbork was the main transit camp used by the Germans during their occupation of Holland to send people--mostly Jews--to the death camps in Poland. April 2016. Facilities were poor and overcrowding was common. Verifizierter Kauf. No need to register, buy now! One of them commanded the prisoners camp, usually after being specially trained for this duty. The Quakers made arrangements in conjunction with OSE to transfer 50 children from the camp. Westerbork, the Netherlands, October 1942. We were at Kamp Westerbork on a rainy day, so we didn't stroll through the area and meditate on the horrors as long as I had wished. Many died from the dismal living conditions. Maurice Frankenhuis chronicled his family's experiences while interned in Westerbork and in 1948 conducted an interview with its Commander Albert Gemmeker while awaiting trial. The visitor centre near the parking lot (which is situated 3 kilometres from Kamp Westerbork!) During World War II, the Nazis took over the camp and turned it into a deportation camp… [6] Even after being labeled a Jew, Hillesum began to report on antisemitic policies. She took a job with Judenrat for two weeks and then volunteered to accompany the first group of Jews sent to Westerbork. The Dutch government established a camp at Westerbork in October 1939 to intern Jewish refugees who had entered the Netherlands illegally. Westerbork was considered by Nazi standards as “humane”. While most inmates stayed in the camp for only short periods of time before being deported, there was also a "permanent" camp population of 2,000 people, mostly German Jews, Jewish council members, camp employees, and certain other categories of persons exempt from deportation. Despite their terrible conditions, cultural and religious activity continued in the ghettos, labor camps, and even concentration camps. [7][circular reference] The published interview in Dutch and English became the basis for a docudrama created in September 2019. Another similarity between camp Westerbork and other concentration camps was the strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent by the prisoners. Typescript report into conditions at Westerbork concentration camp entitled 'Kollektive Arbeit einer Widerstandsgruppe'; also correspondence between members of Wiener Library staff and Professor David Cohen regarding the reliability of the report as a historical document, including a short paper on the subject, 1944-1959. This collection contains documents relating to the Westerbork Jewish transit camp between 1942-1945, including are reports, maps and some photos as well as pre-war correspondence, and post-war court proceedings. Facilities were poor and overcrowding was common. [4], Etty Hillesum was able to avoid the Nazi dragnet that identified Jews until April 1942. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. The Germans encouraged "normal" activities by this group, including metalwork, health services work, and cultural activities. Camp Westerbork (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II. The film draws on several sources, including black-and-white still images from various archives, excerpts from older black-and-white films from French, Soviet, and Polish newsreels, footage shot by detainees of the Westerbork internment camp in the Netherlands, or by the Allies' "clean-up" operations, plus new color and black-and-white footage filmed at concentration camps in 1955. The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Of course, we do not pretend that the daily itinerary was the same in all concentration camps. For other uses, see, Location of Westerbork within Netherlands, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Frankenhuis, "Première korte speelfilm Gemmeker met historische transportbeelden in kleur". Arrival of a transport at the Westerbork camp. Categories of prisoners; 3. Presser also published a novel, The Night of the Girondins, which was set in Westerbork. In July 1942 the German Security Police, assisted by an SS company and Dutch military police, took control of Westerbork. The National Westerbork Memorial was unveiled at the site by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands on 4 May 1970. Unlike most of the concentration camps within Germany not all of the transit camps were run by the SS. Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork. [2][3], Transport trains arrived at Westerbork every Tuesday from July 1942 to September 1944, and deported an estimated 97,776 Jews during the period. The barracks swarmed with various sorts of vermin and rats. Concentration camp Westerbork. In July 1942, the German security police and the SS turned it into a transit camp to hold prisoners before deporting them to concentration camps in the east, where most perished. [1] The SS actually had very little to do with selecting transferees; this job fell to another class of inmates that made up a sort of security service. Construction and commissioning of the camp; 2. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Westerbork Concentration Camp in höchster Qualität. The main barracks were situated on a tract of heath and marshland near the small village of Westerbork. [2] A special, separate work cadre of 2,000 “permanent” Jewish inmates was used as a camp labor force. The Dutch government established the camp in 1939 to intern Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who had entered the Netherlands illegally. The prisoners ha… Relations with the outside world; 6. She was involved in Neu Beginnen, an anti-fascist group formed in 1929 by members of the Social Democratic Party, the Nazis’ primary political rivals. Rails-monument at Westerbork: broken rails of the former track which was used to transport Jewish people to and from the camp. Select from premium Westerbork Concentration Camp of the highest quality. Westerbork was located near … Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). Camp Westerbork also housed German film actress and cabaret singer Dora Gerson, who was interned there with her family before being sent to Auschwitz, and Professor Sir William Asscher, who survived the camp when his mother secured his family's release by fabricating English ancestry. Following the war, Westerbork was first used as a remand prison for alleged and accused Nazi collaborators, and later housed Dutch nationals who fled the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Among these sites was the Westerbork transit camp in the Netherlands. Jewish inmates with families were housed in 200 interconnected cottages that contained two rooms, a toilet, a hot plate for cooking, and a small yard. The first train arrived on July 15th and left the camp on July 16th with 1,135 of the first selected Jews. The collections also contains documents on the refugee camp Westerbork between 1939-1942, as it was still under Dutch administration. A Jewish police unit kept order and assisted with the transports. The Westerbork camp was situated in the northeastern part of the Netherlands. A total of 876 inmates were found.[2]. [14], In 2017, films commissioned by the German camp commander Albert Gemmeker from a Jewish prisoner, Rudolf Breslauer, to document everyday life in the Westerbork transit camp, were submitted by the Netherlands and included in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. 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